The Site of the ABCP



kiliman2.jpg (9465 bytes)
Moshi is 21 miles from Mt. Kilimanjaro on the plains below.

serengeti-sunset.jpg (50012 bytes)

The African Blackwood Conservation Project is centered at Moshi, in Kilimanjaro district, Tanzania. This is one of the most beautiful and interesting places on the planet. Moshi is just 21 miles (34 km.) south of Mt. Kilimanjaro (5895 m./19,340 ft.), the highest mountain in Africa located near the northeastern border. The volcanic peak, which lies just south of the equator, is snow-capped year round. On the borders of the country lie three of the great lakes of Africa. Lake Victoria is located on the northwest border with Kenya, west of Kilimanjaro, Lake Tanganyika on the western border, and Lake Malawi (Nyasa) on the southwest. The Rift Valley is a tremendous geological fault system extending from Mozambique to the Middle East, and Lakes Malawi and Tanganyika lie within its vast confines.

With a land mass twice the size of California, Tanzania is situated on the East African seaboard between latitudes 1 degree and 11 degrees south and longitudes 30 degrees and 40 degrees east. The union of mainland Tanganyika with the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba created the United Republic of Tanzania in 1965. Its name was coined in a contest in which the winning entry combined "Tan" from Tanganyika and "zan" from Zanzibar with "ia" to create the new name. The Tanzanian flag has five diagonal stripes with green symbolizing the land, blue the water, black the people and gold the mineral wealth of the country. From the white sand beaches of Dar es Salaam, the "Haven of Peace", to snow-capped Kilimanjaro, to the vast grassland plains, to the great lakes on its northwestern flanks, Tanzania is a study in natural wonder. It is a land of great expanse and breath-taking beauty containing some of the natural world's great remaining spectacles, such as the great migration on the Serengeti Plain (about 180 miles/290 km. west of Moshi) of over 1.5 million wildebeests and hundreds of thousands of gazelles and zebras which is prompted by the rainy season each year.

The Serengeti is the world's largest wildlife refuge. Its name means  "endless plains" in Masai. An estimated three million large animals inhabitat an area equal to the size of Northern Ireland. These giant movements of wildlife consume vast quantities of grass each day, in the thousands of tons, and are on continual search for water and grass. The vegetation in the Serengeti consists of short and long grass plains, an acacia savannah and wooded grasslands. Olduvai Gorge is famous for its distinction as the home of Zinjanthropus and Homo Habilis from millions of years ago, literally the "Dawn of Man". Stone age hunters have marked their passing by leaving hundreds of rock paintings in the southern highlands of Tanzania. The descendants of the Bantu peoples, who migrated south some 2000 years ago, now populate Tanzania. The Kiswahili language of today was a trade language, created about 1000 years ago by a blending of Persian, Arabic and Bantu.

Since its independence from Britain in 1961, Tanzania has been a struggling model for African self-development. Its philosophy of Ujamaa (family), which viewed the nation as an extended family which shared common African values and worked together toward communal self-reliance, has been tempered in recent years by needs for economic reform. 80% of the population of over 30 million is engaged in agriculture on the 5% of the land mass which is arable, the remaining countryside being mostly bush and woodlands. The overall population density in 1989 was about 25 persons per sq km (about 65 per sq mi), but about two-thirds of the population lives in the one-third of the country north of the central railroad.

baobab_sunset.jpg (23882 bytes)Primary education is compulsory in Tanzania and about 85% of persons over the age of 15 are literate, but not enough schools are available to accommodate all of the children. Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world. The economy is heavily dependent on agriculture, which accounts for about 43% of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs 80% of the work force. Average wage is US $290 (2005) per year. This land of great contrasts, rich in natural beauty and resources, but very poor, is the setting for the African Blackwood Conservation Project centered in Moshi. By the transfer of a small amount of funds from lands of greater economic bounty to a poor but proud Tanzania, much benefit can be accomplished in the preservation of the mpingo tree--one of Tanzania's national treasures.

Links to other sites which contain more information about Tanzania can be found on the Links page. Following is demographic information from the US Government 2005 CIA World Factbook. In the Kiswahili language of Tanzania, Karibu (welcome) to the ABCP.


2005 CIA World Factbook Information on Tanzania

GeographyPeopleGovernmentEconomyTransportationCommunicationsMilitary Transnational Issues

Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order

Introduction    Tanzania


Definition Field Listing
Shortly after independence, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the nation of Tanzania in 1964. One-party rule came to an end in 1995 with the first democratic elections held in the country since the 1970s. Zanzibar's semi-autonomous status and popular opposition have led to two contentious elections since 1995, which the ruling party won despite international observers' claims of voting irregularities.
   Geography    Tanzania


Definition Field Listing
Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique

Geographic coordinates:

Definition Field Listing
6 00 S, 35 00 E

Map references:

Definition Field Listing


Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 945,087 sq km
land: 886,037 sq km
water: 59,050 sq km
note: includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar

Area - comparative:

Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than twice the size of California

Land boundaries:

Definition Field Listing
total: 3,861 km
border countries: Burundi 451 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 459 km, Kenya 769 km, Malawi 475 km, Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda 396 km, Zambia 338 km


Definition Field Listing
1,424 km

Maritime claims:

Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


Definition Field Listing
varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands


Definition Field Listing
plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south

Elevation extremes:

Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kilimanjaro 5,895 m

Natural resources:

Definition Field Listing
hydropower, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel

Land use:

Definition Field Listing
arable land: 4.52%
permanent crops: 1.08%
other: 94.4% (2001)

Irrigated land:

Definition Field Listing
1,550 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:

Definition Field Listing
flooding on the central plateau during the rainy season; drought

Environment - current issues:

Definition Field Listing
soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture; wildlife threatened by illegal hunting and trade, especially for ivory

Environment - international agreements:

Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

Definition Field Listing
Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa; bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world's second-largest freshwater lake) in the north, Lake Tanganyika (the world's second deepest) in the west, and Lake Nyasa in the southwest
   People    Tanzania


Definition Field Listing Rank Order
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:

Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 44% (male 8,100,216/female 8,074,171)
15-64 years: 53.4% (male 9,665,957/female 9,963,772)
65 years and over: 2.6% (male 418,080/female 544,160) (2005 est.)

Median age:

Definition Field Listing
total: 17.62 years
male: 17.36 years
female: 17.89 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:

Definition Field Listing
1.83% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:

Definition Field Listing Rank Order
38.16 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:

Definition Field Listing Rank Order
16.71 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:

Definition Field Listing
-3.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:

Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 98.54 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 107.85 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 88.95 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 45.24 years
male: 44.56 years
female: 45.94 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:

Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.06 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.8% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.6 million (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

Definition Field Listing Rank Order
160,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:

Definition Field Listing
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, Rift Valley fever and plague are high risks in some locations
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2004)


Definition Field Listing
noun: Tanzanian(s)
adjective: Tanzanian

Ethnic groups:

Definition Field Listing
mainland - native African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, native African, mixed Arab and native African


Definition Field Listing
mainland - Christian 30%, Muslim 35%, indigenous beliefs 35%; Zanzibar - more than 99% Muslim


Definition Field Listing
Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguja (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages
note: Kiswahili (Swahili) is the mother tongue of the Bantu people living in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili is Bantu in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a variety of sources, including Arabic and English, and it has become the lingua franca of central and eastern Africa; the first language of most people is one of the local languages


Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili (Swahili), English, or Arabic
total population: 78.2%
male: 85.9%
female: 70.7% (2003 est.)
   Government    Tanzania

Country name:

Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: United Republic of Tanzania
conventional short form: Tanzania
former: United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar

Government type:

Definition Field Listing


Definition Field Listing
Dar es Salaam; note - legislative offices have been transferred to Dodoma, which is planned as the new national capital; the National Assembly now meets there on regular basis

Administrative divisions:

Definition Field Listing
26 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Iringa, Kagera, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Manyara, Mara, Mbeya, Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Pemba North, Pemba South, Pwani, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Singida, Tabora, Tanga, Zanzibar Central/South, Zanzibar North, Zanzibar Urban/West


Definition Field Listing
26 April 1964; Tanganyika became independent 9 December 1961 (from UK-administered UN trusteeship); Zanzibar became independent 19 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar 26 April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed United Republic of Tanzania 29 October 1964

National holiday:

Definition Field Listing
Union Day (Tanganyika and Zanzibar), 26 April (1964)


Definition Field Listing
25 April 1977; major revisions October 1984

Legal system:

Definition Field Listing
based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Benjamin William MKAPA (since 23 November 1995); Vice President Dr. Ali Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 July 2001); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Benjamin William MKAPA (since 23 November 1995); Vice President Dr. Ali Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 July 2001); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
note: Zanzibar elects a president who is head of government for matters internal to Zanzibar; Amani Abeid KARUME was elected to that office on 29 October 2000
cabinet: Cabinet ministers, including the prime minister, are appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ballot by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 29 October 2000 (next to be held 30 October 2005); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Benjamin William MKAPA reelected president; percent of vote - Benjamin William MKAPA 71.7%, Ibrahim Haruna LIPUMBA 16.3%, Augustine Lyatonga MREME 7.8%, John Momose CHEYO 4.2%

Legislative branch:

Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (274 seats - 232 elected by popular vote, 37 allocated to women nominated by the president, five to members of the Zanzibar House of Representatives; members serve five-year terms); note - in addition to enacting laws that apply to the entire United Republic of Tanzania, the Assembly enacts laws that apply only to the mainland; Zanzibar has its own House of Representatives to make laws especially for Zanzibar (the Zanzibar House of Representatives has 50 seats, directly elected by universal suffrage to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 29 October 2000 (next to be held 30 October 2005)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CCM 244, CUF 16, CHADEMA 4, TLP 3, UDP 2, Zanzibar representatives 5; Zanzibar House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CCM 34, CUF 16

Judicial branch:

Definition Field Listing
Permanent Commission of Enquiry (official ombudsman); Court of Appeal (consists of a chief justice and four judges); High Court (consists of a Jaji Kiongozi and 29 judges appointed by the president; holds regular sessions in all regions); District Courts; Primary Courts (limited jurisdiction and appeals can be made to the higher courts)

Political parties and leaders:

Definition Field Listing
Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (Party of Democracy and Development) or CHADEMA [Bob MAKANI]; Chama Cha Mapinduzi or CCM (Revolutionary Party) [Benjamin William MKAPA]; Civic United Front or CUF [Ibrahim LIPUMBA]; Democratic Party (unregistered) [Christopher MTIKLA]; Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Augustine Lyatonga MREME]; United Democratic Party or UDP [John CHEYO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Definition Field Listing

International organization participation:

Definition Field Listing

Diplomatic representation in the US:

Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Andrew Mhando DARAJA
chancery: 2139 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6125
FAX: [1] (202) 797-7408

Diplomatic representation from the US:

Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert V. ROYALL
embassy: 140 Msese Road, Kinondoni District, Dar es Salaam
mailing address: P. O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam
telephone: [255] (22) 2666-010 through 2666-015
FAX: [255] (22) 2666-701, 2668-501

Flag description:

Definition Field Listing
divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is blue
   Economy    Tanzania

Economy - overview:

Definition Field Listing
Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world. The economy depends heavily on agriculture, which accounts for almost half of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs 80% of the work force. Topography and climatic conditions, however, limit cultivated crops to only 4% of the land area. Industry traditionally featured the processing of agricultural products and light consumer goods. The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's out-of-date economic infrastructure and to alleviate poverty. Growth in 1991-2002 featured a pickup in industrial production and a substantial increase in output of minerals, led by gold. Recent banking reforms have helped increase private sector growth and investment. Continued donor assistance and solid macroeconomic policies supported real GDP growth of nearly 6% in 2004.


Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $23.71 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.8% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:

Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $700 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:

Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 43.2%
industry: 17.2%
services: 39.6% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):

Definition Field Listing Rank Order
16.2% of GDP (2004 est.)

Population below poverty line:

Definition Field Listing
36% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 30.1% (1993)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

Definition Field Listing
38.2 (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.4% (2004 est.)

Labor force:

Definition Field Listing Rank Order
19 million (2004 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:

Definition Field Listing
agriculture 80%, industry and services 20% (2002 est.)

Unemployment rate:

Definition Field Listing Rank Order


Definition Field Listing
revenues: $1.985 billion
expenditures: $2.074 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

Public debt:

Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5% of GDP (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:

Definition Field Listing
coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashew nuts, tobacco, cloves, corn, wheat, cassava (tapioca), bananas, fruits, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats


Definition Field Listing
agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine), diamond, gold and iron mining, soda ash, oil refining, shoes, cement, apparel, wood products, fertilizer, salt

Industrial production growth rate:

Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.4% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production:

Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.727 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - consumption:

Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.566 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:

Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:

Definition Field Listing
30 million kWh (2002)

Oil - production:

Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:

Definition Field Listing Rank Order
17,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:

Definition Field Listing Rank Order

Oil - imports:

Definition Field Listing Rank Order

Oil - proved reserves:

Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - proved reserves:

Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11.33 billion cu m (1 January 2002)

Current account balance:

Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-327.4 million (2004 est.)


Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.248 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:

Definition Field Listing
gold, coffee, cashew nuts, manufactures, cotton

Exports - partners:

Definition Field Listing
India 9.9%, Japan 9.3%, Netherlands 8.1%, UK 5.2%, Germany 5.2%, Kenya 4.6% (2003)


Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.972 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:

Definition Field Listing
consumer goods, machinery and transportation equipment, industrial raw materials, crude oil

Imports - partners:

Definition Field Listing
South Africa 9.9%, China 9.1%, India 7.6%, Zambia 6.2%, UAE 5.3%, Kenya 5%, UK 4.4% (2003)

Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:

Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.175 billion (2004 est.)

Debt - external:

Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$7.321 billion (2004 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:

Definition Field Listing
$1.2 billion (2001)


Definition Field Listing
Tanzanian shilling (TZS)

Currency code:

Definition Field Listing

Exchange rates:

Definition Field Listing
Tanzanian shillings per US dollar - 1,119.28 (2004), 966.583 (2003), 966.583 (2002), 876.412 (2001), 800.409 (2000)

Fiscal year:

Definition Field Listing
1 July - 30 June
   Communications    Tanzania

Telephones - main lines in use:

Definition Field Listing Rank Order
149,100 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:

Definition Field Listing Rank Order
891,200 (2003)

Telephone system:

Definition Field Listing
general assessment: fair system operating below capacity and being modernized for better service; VSAT (very small aperture terminal) system under construction
domestic: trunk service provided by open-wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and fiber-optic cable; some links being made digital
international: country code - 255; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:

Definition Field Listing
AM 12, FM 11, shortwave 2 (1998)

Television broadcast stations:

Definition Field Listing
3 (1999)

Internet country code:

Definition Field Listing

Internet hosts:

Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5,534 (2003)

Internet users:

Definition Field Listing Rank Order
250,000 (2003)
   Transportation    Tanzania


Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 3,690 km
narrow gauge: 969 km 1.067-m gauge; 2,721 km 1.000-m gauge (2003)


Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 88,200 km
paved: 3,704 km
unpaved: 84,496 km (1999 est.)


Definition Field Listing
Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, and Lake Nyasa principal avenues of commerce with neighboring countries; rivers not navigable (2004)


Definition Field Listing
gas 29 km; oil 866 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:

Definition Field Listing
Bukoba, Dar es Salaam, Kigoma, Kilwa Masoko, Lindi, Mtwara, Mwanza, Pangani, Tanga, Wete, Zanzibar

Merchant marine:

Definition Field Listing
total: 11 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 25,481 GRT/31,011 DWT
by type: cargo 2, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 4
registered in other countries: 1 (2005)


Definition Field Listing
123 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:

Definition Field Listing
total: 11
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

Definition Field Listing
total: 112
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 60
under 914 m: 33 (2004 est.)
   Military    Tanzania

Military branches:

Definition Field Listing
Tanzanian People's Defense Force (JWTZ): Army, Naval Wing, Air Defense Command (includes Air Wing), National Service

Military manpower - military age:

Definition Field Listing
15 years of age for voluntary military service; 18 years of age for compulsory military service upon graduation from secondary school; conscript service obligation - 2 years (2004)

Military manpower - availability:

Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 7,422,869 (2005 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:

Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 3,879,630 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:

Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$20.6 million (2004)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:

Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.2% (2004)
   Transnational Issues    Tanzania

Disputes - international:

Definition Field Listing
disputes with Malawi over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River remain dormant

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

Definition Field Listing
refugees (country of origin): 447,877 (Burundi) 153,155 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) 3,036 (Somalia) (2004)

Illicit drugs:

Definition Field Listing
growing role in transshipment of southwest and southeast Asian heroin and south American cocaine destined for south African, European, and US markets and of south Asian methaqualone bound for southern Africa; money laundering remains a problem

This CIA Factbook was last updated on 17 May, 2005



ABCP Website maintained by James E. Harris, 2000.
Last revised 21 Apr 2008.